In the text, Kennedy Warne discusses the efforts made by Seychelles and Aldabra to conserve it natural resources, both living animals and plants, within the parks. One of the main activities that the people engage in is to eradicate all the species that are presenting threat to the indigenous animals. For instance, Red-whisked bulbuls that had been brought to Assumption by the Asian Natives have been eliminated due to their proximity to Aldabra for the fear of invading the parks and competing for the limited food as well as the introduction to invasive seeds and plants. According to Warne, Seychelles Island Foundation cannot take such risk, so it tackles the problem at its source, on Assumption” (89). Other species that have been eradicated are the Madagascar fody which brought with itself hundreds of population in the 2000s.

The author acknowledges that different factors have resulted to the invasive impacts of the new species. These include evolutionary changes and injection of the new biological capital which has resulted to changing species with huge sizes. In Frégate, the author observes millipedes that are gigantic, six-inch, and finger thick, a huge size than the ordinary millipedes (100). The preserved beetles are also gigantic with grappling hooks at the tip of each leg with large abdomen as Braille. All in all, the restoration has aimed and conserving different species including cocoplum, guava, cinnamon, jellyfish tree, and medusagyme. The eradication of certain species to save another has made the islands and parks of Seychelles to retain its indigenous species with Aldabra having currently over 100 tortoises which can be heard “snoring under the floorboards.”


Super bowl is the yearly National Football League championship game usually held in the United States. These games are usually watched by many people in the United States, as evidenced in the year 2015 when Super Bowl XLIX had a viewership of approximately 115 million people.

Super bowl commercials were then adopted in a bid to create more revenue from brands like Coca-Cola, Budweiser, and Doritos among others. They have been widely accepted to an extent that some U.S citizens watch the annual super bowl in anticipation of the super bowl commercials that will be displayed that year. These commercials are also available on You Tube, the world’s largest website in terms of video sharing, where diverse people are able to view and appreciate the brands.

Effects of super bowl commercials

Super bowl commercials have various effects on their concerned stakeholder including the marketers and the consumers of the same. These advertisements have been widely accepted to an extent that they are able to influence various elements of culture that has been adopted.

In relation to consumers, super bowl commercials are mainly used to attract consumers to the brands being advertised. Super bowl commercials are set in such a manner that they attract the attention of the viewers by employing things like humor in them. It has been said that companies that invest in super bowl commercials perform better than those that do not (Syken, 2016). This in itself shows that super bowl commercials inspire consumers to want to acquire more of the brands that have been advertised.

They increase brand awareness to an extent that consumers know the particular brands that are usually advertised on the yearly super bowl commercials (Syken, 2016). They are a sure way of ensuring that your products remain to be part of those that are regularly considered by your consumers.

Additionally, consumer spending has increased across the years when looking at the super bowl weekends from 2007 to 2016. In 2007, consumer spending stood at 8.7 billion U.S dollars while in the year 2016, it stood at 15.53 billion U.S dollars (Statista, 2016). These are the purchases that consumers make that relate to the super bowl weekend. From the above we can conclude that the super bowl commercials, which are a part of the super bowl weekend, inspire spending from consumers.

Super bowl commercials have also been used to provide a platform through which more consumers can interact with other people, especially through social media. Super bowl commercials allow consumers to have a common ground through which they can share ideas and relate to one another. This is because they provide a common brand experience based on the particular brand that a consumer likes (Sterling, 2015).

Super bowl commercials also have various effects on marketers. Primarily, they can be used as a means of increasing the awareness of the company’s brands to a wider target market. As much as super bowl commercials incur significant advertising costs, they are a sure way of ensuring that more than one hundred million citizens in the United States know more about your products.

They can therefore provide a source of competitive advantage amongst your competitors if used well. The marketers have to gather knowledge about their consumers’ tastes and preferences to identify the most suitable ways of appealing to them in the short commercials. This is because if the commercial is not liked, it can adversely affect consumer perception on the products being advertised hence able to affect sales margins.

On the other hand, super bowl commercials can inspire consumer spending as mentioned above. This has been evidenced by increased consumer spending across the years during super bowl weekends. For marketers, this means increased revenue from their products and can also lead to improved financial performance (Smith, 2015).

Super bowl commercials can be used to increase and foster business relationships amongst various stakeholders. If a super bowl commercial is well perceived, suppliers, distributors might want to be a part of the organization as well. They will want to do business with the organization through an appreciation of the appeal that the commercials have (Hub, 2015). These commercials can also motivate employees and other internal stakeholders of an organization. On realizing that the commercial has been well received globally, they will be inspired to work harder as they feel that their efforts have been appreciated. This can also lead to new talent being attracted to the company. The organization can attract new talent and diverse skills by being able to pull a memorable super bowl commercial (Hub, 2015).


As much as super bowl commercials seem like a viable strategy to marketing products, marketers should remain keen on the expenses attributed to this as well as the long-term effect that the commercial will have on consumers. This is because super bowl commercials seem to appeal to consumers on a short-term basis. They provide a surge for consumer spending on the short term. This means that marketers ought to use other marketing strategies to maintain and increase their products brand awareness. This includes the use of social media and other online platforms to promote their products (Smith, 2015).

The punishment of death penalty according to Pojman is both humane and fair in legal perspective. He cites several historical circumstances including the biblical perception of punishment by death and according to his opinion and his cited examples, this form of punishment serves as both an act of retribution for those who are deeply affected by the crime and deterrence to those who might have plans for committing that similar crime in the future. Pojman in his defense argument uses two major aspects of expected outcomes of the death penalty as a form of punishment, the outcomes which include; Retribution and Deterrence.


This argument is solely based on the moral consciousness and dignity of mankind that is bestowed upon them by their right to live. Pojman argues that every mankind is entitled to life and those who have the odesity to decide and take the life of others unlawfully and with dire intentions, forfeits his or her right to live, and it is therefore only fair for their life to be taken away through the death penalty. He, however, stands that, this Couse of action should only be taken by law and the suspected criminal be convicted and the guilt determined first before the punishment of death is executed.

To support this argument, Pojman uses the three principles of retribution that is;

  • Everyone who is found to be guilty of any crime deserves some form of punishment
  • The guilt of any suspected criminal should be determined forehand and only those found guilty to be punished
  • Whoever is convicted of a crime deserves a punishment that rhymes with the severity of the crime committed. He uses this principle to argue the morality of death penalty, which is if one takes the life of another they also deserve to be killed.

Pojman in his retribution argument, however, warns people not to associate retribution with revenge. He explains that these to actions even though both serves as appeasement and satisfaction measure to the offended are quite a difference. He argues that “the moral justification of punishment is not vengeance but desert “and states that vengeance is driven by anger and not the law. He argues that while the common natural instinct of the offended is revenge and that punishment of criminals should depict the gravity of the crime, the current civilization should act as a restrain to the natural instinct because the outcome of taking the law into our hands is no more than local insecurity and injustices.


The basis of this defense according to Pojman is an insight into the future. He argues that if homicide criminals were all killed by law, then those who might be killers in the future may restrain when they imagine the cost of killing someone is death. Citing McVeigh advocacy of public execution of murder criminals, Pojman portrays the fear this will instill on the prospective murderers and indicates that this might reduce the murder cases both in the USA and any other country in the world.

To support this argument, Pojman cites the arguments of human common sense that; instilling fear in people including criminals will have effect on their presumed motivation, criminals are people and, therefore, afraid of death more than any punishment, death penalty is humane and, therefore, they will be deterred from crime when death penalty is the likely punishment. Pojman in his argument states that other than death, the only other punishment that can deter criminals is torture, but he argues against this stating that it is not legal. In comparison to life imprisonment, he argues in defense of death penalty stating that while imprisonment will limit freedom and leads to loss of respect in the community, the fear of death is much direr and instills more fear hence more effective in deterring future crimes.

Pojman closes his argument by stating that death penalty is a reminder of lethal consequences to our crimes, and because we take responsibility for our actions, death sentence fits as a penalty for any immoral actions.


In my opinion, the strongest objection among the ones cited in the text is that objection that cites the scripture as evidence against the act of man killing one another. The reader cites (Romans 12: 19 and Deut. 32:35) both which states the Lords direct command on vengeance. Also, to this scripture the Bible states in Exodus that “thou shall not kill” among the ten commandments given to Moses in mount Zion, this depicts life as a sacred gift from God, and no one has the authority to end it and even the authority to pass such judgment. In the state’s law argument that they are allowed to execute men in the name of God does not reflect what is written in the scripture as most of the judges and the executioners are not men of God, and some of them do not even believe in the Bible itself.

The provided response is adequate from the legal point of view, but in the religious point of view, I believe that Pojman’s justification of death penalty is against the word of God he should not presume that the punishment indicated in the Bible includes the death penalty.